Makkah is the city located in the region of Hejaz of Saudi Arabia. The city is located at 70 km from Jeddah in narrow valley at height of 277m above the sea level and 340 Kilometers south of Madinah. The population of this city is 2 Million according the value in 2017 but the amount is doubled or tripled during the Hajj which held on 12 month Dhul Hijjah according to the Islamic calendar (Lunar Calendar).
It is the birthplace and place for the first revelation on Hazrat Muhammad.The cave is situated at the distance of 2 miles from Makkah.It is also termed as the holiest city as a large number of Muslims from all over the world com to visit this place in order to perform Hajj and Umrah. During the expansion and development Makkah has lost his an archaeological site named as Ajyad Fortress.
The ancient name of Makkah is Bakkah. The official name is Makah Al Mukarramah or Makkatul Mukarramah.
The city is administrated by the municipality of Makkah and the mayor of the city is Dr. Osama bin Fadhel Al –Bar in 2015.Makkah is capital of Makkah region and have the neighboring city Jeddah. After the death of Prince Abdul Majeed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in 2007 on May 16 2007 Prince Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud was appointed the new governor.
According to the Islamic history of Makkah goes back to the time of Hazrat Ibrahim. He build the Khana Kaabah with the help of his son to praise Allah Almighty in Makkah around 2000 BCE. Hazrat Muhamad was born in Makkah in 570 and then he started to preach the teaching of Allah Almighty. In cave of Hira on Jabal-e- Nour located in Makkah is the place where the divine revelation from Allah Almighty through Angel Jibrail was given to Hazrat Muhammad. Two battle between Muslims and Quraish were fought known as Battle of Badr and Battle of Uhud.
IN 628 Hazrat Muahmmad along with his followers were stopped by the Quraish to enter Makkah to perform Pilgrimmage then the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was made so that Muslims can enter to Makkah for Pilgrimage.
The Makkah economy has been dependent on the annual pilgrimage. One way to generate income was taxing the pilgrims. Secondly National Airline of Saudi Arabia is the second source as it generates revenue by the fares paid by the pilgrims and by the hotel and lodging companies that house the pilgrims.
The city revenue generation is $ 100 million while Saudi Arabian government spend $50 Million on services of Hajj. The major of the income is services oriented and it is not dependent on the oil economy. Beside this many other industries have been set up that includes vegetable oil plant, frozen food importing, and ice factories, bottling plant of soft drinks, barber shop, book shops, travel agencies and banks.
There are ten hospital in Saudi Arabia and they provide free of charge services to the pilgrims. Ajyad Hospital, King Faisal Hospital, King Abdullah Medical city and many more.
The school system is also present in Makkah many public and private schools for both males and females. As of 2005, there are 532 public and private schools for males and 681 public and private schools for female students.
The transport system is also developed and better and it is connected to every city for the access to roads. King Abdulaziz International Airport located at JEeddah caters 3800 pilgrims during Hajj per hour.
Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro is metro line and used for transportation of pilgrims to sites visited during Hajj to regulate traffic on roads. There is also Makkah Mass Rail Transit. A high speed intercity rail line also named as Western Railway.
There are highways that connect the cities Highway 40 (Saudi Arabia connects Jeddah to Dammam and Highway 15 connect Taif to Makkah and Makkah to Madina.
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